The creation of this "people's alliance", with openly Islamo-nationalist features, accelerated and extended the ongoing political repression after the massive Whatsapp Mobile Number List protest movement that had spread, in June 2013, from Gezi Park and Taksim Square, in Istanbul, all over Turkey. The country currently ranks low in world rankings for democracy, freedom of the press and, in general, respect for human rights.
The akp 's authoritarian drift spread progressively Whatsapp Mobile Number List over a long period and was facilitated by the inherited political system, a Whatsapp Mobile Number List that combines democratic institutions with authoritarian rules and practices modeled, among other things, by military coups. The title of the dossier on Turkey in the magazine Confluences Méditerranée rightly recalls this permanence.
Turkey lives "the return of authoritarianism"5. The transformation of the regime, launched with the universal suffrage election of the president in 2014, the first in the history of the Republic of Turkey, constitutes the common thread of the articles that make up this dossier. But is it Whatsapp Mobile Number List perhaps a simple return to the authoritarianism of yesteryear or the establishment of a new type of authoritarian regime? In another collective work, the successive stages, from the Gezi Park events to the 2017 constitutional referendum, are analyzed in light of the transformation of the political system and social dynamics in order to maintain the akp 's electoral dominance through a change of political regime6.
Having led the country as prime minister for 11 years, with a comfortable parliamentary majority, Erdoğan was elected president in the first round in the summer of 2014. After his election, he declared that as a result, "in fact, the regime became presidential. Three years later, thanks to constitutional reforms, a hyper-presidential regime was installed, albeit legitimized by very fragile popular support during the 2017 referendum.7. Managing the country with a strategy of permanent crisis and tension,